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declarative knowledge is used to solve a specific problem, the solution procedure becomes part of the problem solver’s procedural or informal knowledge. (Davies & Naumann, 1997. 15-16)

Meta knowledge

Meta knowledge is knowledge about knowledge. It concerns knowing how knowledge and expertise are organized and how to locate and access the knowledge. It is knowing what you know and don’t know. Meta knowledge is developed by education, experience, and reflection.

(Davies & Naumann, 1997. 16)

Impressionistic knowledge

Although impressionistic knowledge is hidden in the sense that it is not formal and well structured, it represents the sum total of experience. This helps a knowledge worker arrive at impressions without systematic consideration of formal problem solving. (Davies & Naumann, 1997. 16)

The development of expertise by knowledge workers involves solving progressively more demanding and varied problems by applying declarative knowledge. This leads to the development of procedural knowledge. The process is guided by the application of meta knowledge. Selection of problems and goals is associated with impressionistic knowledge. (Davies & Naumann, 1997. 16)

1.4SUMMARY All three approaches are overlapping and include similarities in types of knowledge. A model about the similarities of the approaches is presented in figure 1. For example Nonaka’s tacit and explicit can be placed under Bereiter’s six personnel knowledge. You cannot say that one is correct or not. All three approaches are reasonable and usable in some sense. However Bereiter’s category is deeper and more detailed. It provides specific perspectives to “tacit knowledge” and helps us to separate different types of knowledge. Davies & Naumann’s category is a certain kind of generalization from Bereiter’s category.

Bereiter

Statable

Skill

Impressionistic

Regulative

Episodic

Implicit

Knowledge

Knowledge

Knowledge

Understanding

Davies

Declarative

Procedural

Impressionistic

Meta

&Naumann

Knowledge

Knowledge

Nonaka

Explicit

Type of Knowledge

Tacit

Figure 1. A superficial model about the correspondence of different knowledge categories.

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