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These gains, of course, cannot be attributed solely to the intervention because an equivalent control group was not available. However, they can provide evidence of whether or not growth occurred over the 3-month period for these Head Start children.

As shown in Table 5, children’s scores indicated significant changes in emergent literacy growth. Gains in children’s receptive language from pre-

to post-test rose significantly,

9.55,~~

.OOl, as well as their concepts of

print,

10.01, p<

.OOl.

Although growth was evident for all children, gains for children of low proficiency parent readers were even more striking than those for children of proficient parent readers. In fact, mean scores for children of low pro-

ficiency parents doubled on receptive

concepts of print. Though speculative suggest that control these data groups , that encouraged active participation,

language and almost tripled on the until replication with appropriate given a range of resource materials

all parents, even those who lacked

reading proficiency,

meaningfully

contributed

to

their

children’s

emergent

literacy abilities through regular storybook reading. Changes in children’s knowledge of print conventions

were examined

of print

measure.

learned

throughout

more specifically by conducting

This

analysis

the

3-month

an item analysis of scores from the revealed that for most children, period included knowledge of the

concepts concepts front of

the book, of left to

the fact that right, and the

print (not the picture) concept of word and

told the story, directional rules letter. No growth was shown in

more detailed knowledge of word sequence,

tion, and punctuation. concepts, rather than context of storybook

Taken specific reading.

together, these print features,

letter order, data indicate seemed to

letter identifica- that more global be learned in the

Numerous studies (Allington, 1994; Kozol, 1991; Madden et al., 1993) have revealed the inequities among economically advantaged and disadvantaged

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