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Correcting or confirming a response (“Yes, they’re going to tell the king.“)

Labeling

Labeling of objects or events (“It’s snow.“)

Managing

Getting the child involved (“Let’s look at this together.“)

Recalling

Reviewing story details, plots, and/or theme (“Why do you think the boy is so sad?“)

Repeating

Copying previous utterance (Parent: “It’s a cat.” Child: “A cat.“)

Attention Vocative

Bridging

Chiming

Clarifying

Elaborating

Directing attention to picture or print (“Look! See the fox”)

Making connections from story content to everyday experiences (“Did you ever lose a mitten?“)

Predicting

Reading along with the text

Asking (“What

Extending previous utterance with new information

(Child:

“A

snowman.”

Mother:

“Snow

man

or

snow

lady.“)

fox?“)

(Parent: “Cocky Locky and Goosey.”

Explaining picture and/or text (“These tracks are made by a stick.“)

Child: “Loosey”)

the

meets

for do

information

not

yet

indicated

in

text

you

think

will

happen

when

Cocky

Locky

Following the conclusion of were once again administered Test, and the Peabody Picture

the book club, the alternative forms Vocabulary Test.

English-speaking of the Concepts

children of Print

Tapes were tion in the categorized argued that

transcribed verbatim for each of the three sessions. Conversa-

parent-child

dyad was examined as an integrated unit,

separately for adult meaning inherent in

and child. Rogoff a jointly constructed

and Gauvain instructional

and not (1986) event is

obscured by dividing cooperative actions of mother and child into behaviors

for

which

only one is

said

to contribute.

Therefore,

and

child),

apart from

the

reading of the

text, were

all utterances (parent coded for content.

Two coders,

trained in

early

domly selected

transcripts

from

literacy, independently each type of text. Each

reviewed eight ran- constructed a typol-

ogy of utterances and then discussed and

refined these categories. Eleven

categories

of

interaction

were

identified.

Once

definitions

and

examples

were described, we random. Agreement tion of each coding

independently

scored six additional

tapes selected at

ranged from 87% to 100% (see Table 2 for a category). After reliability was established, the

descrip- remain-

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