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Piotr Winkielman and Kent C. Berridge

research and treatment. However, it is also clear that psychologists should not limit themselves to subjective experiences. A combination of approaches and techniques, from psychology and human and ani- mal affective neuroscience, will best lead to understanding the rela- tion between conscious and unconscious emotions.

Frijda, N.H. (1999). Emotions and hedonic experience. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Well-being: The foundations of hedonic psychology (pp. 190–210). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

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Kihlstrom, J.F. (1999). The psychological unconscious. In L.A. Pervin & O.P. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (2nd ed., pp. 424–442). New York: Guilford Press.

Recommended Reading Bargh, J.A., & Ferguson, M.L. (2000). Beyond behaviorism: On the automa- ticity of higher mental processes. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 925–945.

Berridge, K.C., & Winkielman, P. (2003). (See References)

LeDoux, J. (1996). The emotional brain: The mysterious underpinnings of emotional life. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Monahan, J.L., Murphy, S.T., & Zajonc, R.B. (2000). Subliminal mere expo- sure: Specific, general, and diffuse effects. Psychological Science, 11, 462–466.

Damasio, A.R. (1999). The feeling of what happens: Body and emotion in the making of consciousness. New York: Harcourt Brace.

Wilson, T.D. (2002). Strangers to ourselves: Discovering the adaptive un- conscious. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Zajonc, R.B. (2000). Feeling and thinking: Closing the debate over the in- dependence of affect. In J.P. Forgas (Ed.), Feeling and thinking: The role of affect in social cognition (pp. 31–58). New York: Cambridge University Press.

¨ Ohman, A., Flykt, A., & Lundqvist, D. (2000). Unconscious emotion: Evolu-

tionary perspectives, psychophysiological data and neuropsychological mechanisms. In R.D. Lane, L. Nadel, & G. Ahern (Eds.), Cognitive neuroscience of emotion (pp. 296–327). New York: Oxford University Press.

Steiner, J.E. (1973). The gustofacial response: Observation on normal and anencephalic newborn infants. Symposium on Oral Sensation and Per- ception, 4, 254–278.

Whalen, P.J. (1998). Fear, vigilance, and ambiguity: Initial neuroimaging studies of the human amygdala. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 7, 177–188.


Berridge, K.C. (2003). Pleasures of the brain. Brain and Cognition, 52, 106–128.

Winkielman, P., Berntson, G.G., & Cacioppo, J.T. (2001). The psychophysio- logical perspective on the social mind. In A. Tesser & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of social psychology: Intraindividual processes (pp. 89–108). Oxford, England: Blackwell.

Berridge, K.C., & Winkielman, P. (2003). What is an unconscious emotion: The case for unconscious ‘liking.’ Cognition and Emotion, 17, 181–211.

Clore, G.L. (1994). Why emotions are never unconscious. In P. Ekman & R.J. Davidson (Eds.), The nature of emotion: Fundamental questions (pp. 285–290). New York: Oxford University Press.

Freud, S. (1950). Collected papers, Vol. 4 (J. Riviere, Trans.). London: Hogarth Press and Institute of Psychoanalysis.

Winkielman, P., Berridge, K.C., & Wilbarger, J. (in press). Unconscious af- fective reactions to masked happy versus angry faces influence con- sumption behavior and judgments of value. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.

Winkielman, P., Zajonc, R.B., & Schwarz, N. (1997). Subliminal affective priming resists attributional interventions. Cognition and Emotion, 11, 433–465.

Volume 13—Number 3


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