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Piotr Winkielman and Kent C. Berridge

research and treatment. However, it is also clear that psychologists should not limit themselves to subjective experiences. A combination of approaches and techniques, from psychology and human and ani- mal affective neuroscience, will best lead to understanding the rela- tion between conscious and unconscious emotions.

Frijda, N.H. (1999). Emotions and hedonic experience. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Well-being: The foundations of hedonic psychology (pp. 190–210). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

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Kihlstrom, J.F. (1999). The psychological unconscious. In L.A. Pervin & O.P. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (2nd ed., pp. 424–442). New York: Guilford Press.

Recommended Reading Bargh, J.A., & Ferguson, M.L. (2000). Beyond behaviorism: On the automa- ticity of higher mental processes. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 925–945.

Berridge, K.C., & Winkielman, P. (2003). (See References)

LeDoux, J. (1996). The emotional brain: The mysterious underpinnings of emotional life. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Monahan, J.L., Murphy, S.T., & Zajonc, R.B. (2000). Subliminal mere expo- sure: Specific, general, and diffuse effects. Psychological Science, 11, 462–466.

Damasio, A.R. (1999). The feeling of what happens: Body and emotion in the making of consciousness. New York: Harcourt Brace.

Wilson, T.D. (2002). Strangers to ourselves: Discovering the adaptive un- conscious. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Zajonc, R.B. (2000). Feeling and thinking: Closing the debate over the in- dependence of affect. In J.P. Forgas (Ed.), Feeling and thinking: The role of affect in social cognition (pp. 31–58). New York: Cambridge University Press.

¨ Ohman, A., Flykt, A., & Lundqvist, D. (2000). Unconscious emotion: Evolu-

tionary perspectives, psychophysiological data and neuropsychological mechanisms. In R.D. Lane, L. Nadel, & G. Ahern (Eds.), Cognitive neuroscience of emotion (pp. 296–327). New York: Oxford University Press.

Steiner, J.E. (1973). The gustofacial response: Observation on normal and anencephalic newborn infants. Symposium on Oral Sensation and Per- ception, 4, 254–278.

Whalen, P.J. (1998). Fear, vigilance, and ambiguity: Initial neuroimaging studies of the human amygdala. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 7, 177–188.

REFERENCES

Berridge, K.C. (2003). Pleasures of the brain. Brain and Cognition, 52, 106–128.

Winkielman, P., Berntson, G.G., & Cacioppo, J.T. (2001). The psychophysio- logical perspective on the social mind. In A. Tesser & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of social psychology: Intraindividual processes (pp. 89–108). Oxford, England: Blackwell.

Berridge, K.C., & Winkielman, P. (2003). What is an unconscious emotion: The case for unconscious ‘liking.’ Cognition and Emotion, 17, 181–211.

Clore, G.L. (1994). Why emotions are never unconscious. In P. Ekman & R.J. Davidson (Eds.), The nature of emotion: Fundamental questions (pp. 285–290). New York: Oxford University Press.

Freud, S. (1950). Collected papers, Vol. 4 (J. Riviere, Trans.). London: Hogarth Press and Institute of Psychoanalysis.

Winkielman, P., Berridge, K.C., & Wilbarger, J. (in press). Unconscious af- fective reactions to masked happy versus angry faces influence con- sumption behavior and judgments of value. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.

Winkielman, P., Zajonc, R.B., & Schwarz, N. (1997). Subliminal affective priming resists attributional interventions. Cognition and Emotion, 11, 433–465.

Volume 13—Number 3

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