Forensic Science-any branch of science that is applied to the law: the application of science to criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system.
Key Historic Figures:
Mathieu Orfila (1787-1853) Father of forensic toxicology; published the first scientific detection
of poisons and their effects on animals.
Alphonse Bertillon (1853-1914) Developed the first scientific system of personal identification
Anthropometry-a systematic procedure of taking body measurements as a means of distinguishing one individual from another.
Francis Galton (1822-1911) Developed methodology of classifying fingerprints for filing
Leone Lattes (1887-1954) Developed a procedure for determining blood group of dried bloodstain
Calvin Goddard (1891-1955) Used a comparison microscope to examine bullets (ballistics)
Albert S. Osborn (1858-1946) Developed fundamental principles of document examination
Walter C. McCrone (1916-2002) Used microscopy and analytical methodologies to examine
Hans Gross (1847-1915) Described application of scientific disciplines to the field of criminal
Edmond Locard (1877-1966) Founder/director of the Institute of Criminalistics at the Univ. of
Locard’s Exchange Principle-The exchange of materials between two objects that occurs whenever two objects come into contact with one another.
FBI (1932) Under leadership of J. Edgar Hoover organized a national lab to offer forensic
services to all law enforcement agencies in the country.
In 1981, FBI’s Forensic Science Research and Training Center opened
August Vollmer (1923) Created the 1st Forensic lab in the U.S. with the LAPD. Headed the 1st
U.S. university institute for criminology and criminalistics at the Univ. of California at Berkeley and in 1948 a school of criminology was formed.
Paul Kirk (1902-1970) Famous criminalist selected to head school of criminology (1948)
Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA molecules carry the body’s genetic information. It instructs the body cells to make protein that determine everything from hair color to our susceptibility to diseases.
In the 1950’s James Watson and Frances Crick found out that DNA is a double stranded helix. Each unit has a sugar molecule, a phosphorus containing group and a nitrogen containing molecule called a base. Bases are Adenine, cytosine, quinine, and thymine.
A pairs with T
G pairs with C
DNA, transcription, RNA, translation, protein, trait, Proteins are a combination of amino acids.
Transcription- changes DNA to RNA in nucleous of cell
Translation- changes RNA into protein occurs in the cytoplasm of cell