Trait- the proteins code for specific traits
Only 1% of the human genome codes for personal traits.
Polymerase Chain Reaction- PCR responsible for using DNA polymerases and heat cycles to make millions of copies of DNA. Used when sample amounts are small.
Gel Electrophoresis- DNA has a negative charge. When placed on an agarose gel with an electrical current running through it, DNA will separate by size. The smaller pieces will travel further towards the positive pole. Once the DNA pieces are separated out, comparisons can be made.
Double strands unwind and split up. Each side is exposed to free base nucleotides letter by letter. The double helix id recreated and 2 identical copies of DNA emerge.
DNA polymerase – enzyme that assemble new DNA in proper sequence.
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) - process of copying small amounts of DNA using polymerases and temperature changes into millions of copies.
Restriction Enzymes- Act as scissors to slice DNA at specific base pairs.
Short Tandem Repeats-STR locations on chromosomes that contain repeats of 3-7 bases stable, less susceptible to degradation can be recovered from bodies or stains that are extremely decomposed.
CODIS- Combined DNA index System DNA database uses 13 STRs. Nuclear DNA has 23 pairs of chromosomes and is in the nucleus of the cell
Mitochondrial DNA- found outside of nucleus and inherited from mother only.
Fundamental principles of fingerprints
- all fingerprints have individual characteristics
- all fingerprints will remain unchanged throughout a lifetime
- fingerprints can be systematically classified
Loop- Classification of fingerprints characterized by ridge lines that enter from one side of the pattern and curve around to exit from that same side. 65% of population has loops.
Whorl- classified by having ridge patterns that are generally rounded or circular in shape and have two deltas. 30-35% of population has whorls.