3) DEATHS AND DAMAGES
Claudette is responsible for one direct and two indi- rect deaths. The direct death was a 13-yr-old boy crushed by a falling tree in Jourdanton, Texas. The first indirect death was a 33-yr-old woman who was hit by a falling limb after the storm was over. The second indi- rect death was at Navarre Beach, Florida, when a 71- yr-old man died after being pulled from surf generated by Claudette. Press reports suggest the man suffered a heart attack while swimming.
The Property Claim Services Division of the Ameri- can Insurance Services Group, the Insurance Services Office, Inc., reported that Claudette caused 90 million dollars in damage to insured property in the United States. The total damage estimate is twice this, or 180 million dollars. No significant damage was reported from Mexico, the Cayman Islands, or Jamaica. Minor damage was reported in St. Lucia from the pre-Clau- dette tropical wave.
As Danny moved eastward around the northern pe- riphery of a subtropical Atlantic high pressure ridge, it encountered westerly vertical wind shear and cooler sea surface temperatures and weakened. Danny turned southeastward and weakened to a tropical depression on 20 July and then degenerated into a nonconvective remnant low pressure system on 21 July. The remnant low moved slowly southward and then westward around the south side of the subtropical ridge before making a small clockwise loop on 24–25 July about 1250 n mi east-northeast of Bermuda. After making the loop, the remnant circulation turned southwestward and be- gan moving over warmer water. The remnant low pres- sure system continued moving southwestward and eventually dissipated on 27 July about 1080 n mi east of Bermuda, which is also about 550 n mi east of where Danny originated.
e. Hurricane Erika, 14–17 August
Hurricane warnings for the Texas coast were issued about 24 h before the center made landfall. A hurricane watch was issued from Port O’Connor southward about 48 h before Claudette made landfall, while a hurricane watch was issued for the remainder of the landfall area about 30 h before the center made landfall. The first tropical storm warnings for the northeastern Yucatan Peninsula were issued 37 h before the center made landfall. Hurricane warnings issued on 10 July for the Yucatan Peninsula proved to be unnecessary, since Claudette weakened rapidly after being a hurricane for a few hours.
d. Hurricane Danny, 16–21 July
Hurricane Danny made a large looping path over the central North Atlantic Ocean. A large, well-organized tropical wave moved across the coast of Africa on 9 July. Soon thereafter, a disturbance separated from the wave and moved northwestward. Thunderstorm activ- ity slowly increased over the following several days and Dvorak satellite classifications began late on 15 July. It is estimated that a tropical depression formed at 1200 UTC 16 July about 550 n mi east of Bermuda.
The depression developed outer convective bands and the cyclone became Tropical Storm Danny at 0000 UTC 17 July. For the next 24 h, Danny moved north- westward and then turned northeastward and gradually strengthened. Danny was upgraded to hurricane status with 65-kt winds on 18 July based on the appearance of an eye on satellite imagery.
Erika made landfall on the Mexican Gulf of Mexico coast just south of the United States–Mexico border shortly after reaching hurricane strength, and was re- sponsible for two deaths.
1) SYNOPTIC HISTORY
Erika’s origin was nontropical. A weak surface low detached from a decaying frontal system about 1000 n mi east of Bermuda on 8 August. This low moved southwestward and then westward for several days, while interacting with an upper-level low. The com- bined weather system produced gusty winds in the Ba- hamas early on 14 August, where there was an unoffi- cial report of a gust to 51 kt from Abaco Island. Con- vection was vigorous while the system moved across Florida during the morning of 14 August and then a closed surface low formed near 1800 UTC, about 75 n mi west of Fort Myers, Florida. With winds already of tropical storm strength, the system immediately be- came Tropical Storm Erika.
A strong deep-layer high pressure system over the south-central United States helped steer Erika west- ward across the Gulf of Mexico at about 22 kt. Erika strengthened as the cyclone’s central convection in- tensified and the low-level circulation became better defined late on 14 August. Strengthening continued on 15 August while Erika’s forward speed decreased and convection took on a more banded structure. Late in the day, an eye was visible in land-based radar imagery. Erika became a hurricane and reached its maximum intensity of 65 kt at landfall near 1030 UTC 16 August while located about 40 miles south of