3) CASUALTY AND DAMAGES
A hurricane watch was issued 35 h before Fabian hit Bermuda, and a hurricane warning was issued 29 h in advance.
The main effect of Tropical Storm Grace was isolated heavy rainfall and some inland freshwater floods across the upper Texas coastal area. No deaths were reported.
g. Tropical Storm Grace, 30 August–2 September
Tropical Storm Grace was a short-lived tropical storm that moved inland along the upper Texas coast and produced little damage.
1) SYNOPTIC HISTORY
Grace’s origin was a strong tropical wave that moved off the west coast of Africa on 19 August. Satellite data indicated that the wave came close to developing into a tropical cyclone several times as it crossed the tropical Atlantic and Caribbean Sea. Finally, a tropical depres- sion, and then Tropical Storm Grace, formed on 30 August over the west-central Gulf of Mexico.
An upper low located a few hundred miles to the west of Grace produced a persistent southerly to south- westerly upper-level shear, which limited development. Broad and somewhat disorganized, Grace moved northwestward on 31 August at about 15 kt.
Grace’s low-level circulation remained poorly orga- nized as it approached the Texas coast near Corpus Christi early on 31 August. A new center formed near Galveston, about 100 n mi north of what had previously been the center. This new circulation center moved in- land near San Luis Pass, Texas, on the southwestern tip of Galveston Island at 1100 UTC with 35-kt winds. The original circulation center weakened and eventually dissipated before it made landfall. Grace continued to move northwestward and quickly weakened after land- fall. Grace turned northward over northeastern Texas on 1 September and merged with a frontal zone.
2) METEOROLOGICAL STATISTICS
Two ships reported tropical storm–force winds asso- ciated with Grace and several offshore oil-drilling plat- forms observed tropical storm–force winds, but these measurements were made several hundred feet above the surface. Grace’s estimated maximum 1-min surface wind speed of 35 kt is based on a blend of a reconnais- sance 1500-ft flight-level spot wind report of 43 kt and two sustained 35-kt wind reports from Sea Rim State Park at 1000 and 1200 UTC 31 August 2003.
Maximum storm surge was around 0.6 m or less along the upper Texas coast, primarily on Galveston Island.
Rainfall across the Houston metropolitan area and the upper Texas coast was in the 75–125-mm range with some isolated reports in excess of 225 mm.
A tropical storm warning was issued at 1500 UTC on 30 August for the Texas coast from High Island to Cor- pus Christi, or about 21 h before landfall. The 35-kt wind observed at Sea Rim State Park was about 30 n mi outside of and northeast of High Island, which was the northeastern end point of the warning area. The unan- ticipated reformation of the surface low just before landfall is the reason for not having warnings extended far enough to the northeast.
h. Tropical Storm Henri, 3–8 September
Henri was a tropical storm with maximum 1-min sur- face winds of 50 kt in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. After weakening to a depression, it moved across central Florida, where it dumped up to 10 in. of rainfall.
Henri formed from a tropical wave that moved from Africa to the tropical Atlantic Ocean on 22 August. The wave reached the eastern Gulf of Mexico on 1 September where the northern portion became de- tached and nearly stationary, while the southern por- tion of the wave continued westward. By 1800 UTC 3 September, the associated convection and low-level cir- culation became well enough organized to become a tropical depression about 260 n mi west of Tampa, Florida.
The depression was embedded in the southern por- tion of a slow-moving midlatitude trough and moved very slowly eastward. The depression became a tropical storm at 0600 UTC 5 September and the cyclone’s wind speed increased to its maximum value of 50 kt at 1800 UTC even though there was at least 20 kt of southwest- erly vertical shear affecting the circulation. However, Henri soon succumbed and winds quickly weakened to 30 kt. Then Henri accelerated northeastward across north-central Florida on 6 September, preceded and accompanied by heavy rain. Moving over the south- western North Atlantic Ocean, Henri’s forward speed decreased on 7 September when it became trapped to the south of a shallow high pressure system. The de- pression then lost its well-defined low-level circulation center while becoming involved with a frontal zone. The broad and disorganized extratropical low remained nearly stationary off the coast of the Carolinas for sev- eral days and moved inland over North Carolina on 12–13 September.
On 5 September, a reconnaissance aircraft reported