MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW
TABLE 5. (Continued)
New Bern (Weather Underground) Ocracoke Gwynns Island
Minimum sea level pressure
Maximum surface wind speed
Storm surge (m)c
c d e f g h
Date/time is for sustained wind when both sustained and gust are listed. Except as noted, sustained wind averaging periods for C-MAN and land-based ASOS reports are 2 min; buoy averaging periods are 8 min; NOS stations averaging periods are 6 min; RAWS stations report 10-min-average sustained winds. Storm surge is water height above normal astronomical tide level. Storm tide is water height above National Geodetic Vertical Datum (1929 mean sea level). Station destroyed—more extreme values may have occurred. Incomplete record—more extreme values may have occurred. Subsequent survey storm surge value. Ten-minute average.
lina, and 958 mb from a storm chaser in Hobucken, North Carolina. The lowest pressures from official ob- servation sites were 962.8 mb from an instrumented tower in Atlantic Beach, North Carolina, at 1645 UTC 18 September, and 963.5 mb at Washington, North Carolina, at 1944 UTC that day.
Isabel produced storm surges of 2–2.5 m above nor- mal tide levels near the point of landfall along the At- lantic coast of North Carolina. Farther north, storm surge values ranged from 1 to 2 m along the Virginia coast, 0.6 to 1.2 m along the Maryland, Delaware, and New Jersey shorelines, and 0.3–0.6 m along the coast of Long Island and in the Long Island Sound.
In the North Carolina estuaries, storm surge values were generally 1–2 m above normal tide levels over the eastern portions of the Pamlico Sound and most of the Albemarle Sound. Values of 2–3 m above normal tide levels were observed in the western end of the Pamlico Sound with a maximum value of 3.2 m reported on the Neuse River in Craven County.
Storm surges in Delaware Bay were generally 1–1.2 m at the mouth of the bay and 1.5–2 ft at the head of the bay and along the Delaware River in the vicinity of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Rainfall from Hurricane Isabel ranged to 175 mm over large portions of eastern North Carolina, east- central Virginia, and Maryland. Rainfall totals of 200– 300 mm with locally higher amounts occurred in the Shenandoah Valley in northern Virginia. Upper She- rando, Virginia, reported a storm total of 513 mm. Lesser amounts up to 100 mm occurred elsewhere over eastern Virginia and the Delmarva Peninsula.
One tornado occurred in association with Hurricane Isabel. It touched down in the Ocean View section of Norfolk, Virginia, at approximately 2200 UTC 18 Sep- tember according to law enforcement officials. No Fujita scale rating was assigned to the tornado since its damage could not be distinguished from the other hur- ricane-related wind damage in the area.
Storm surges of 1–1.5 m above normal tide levels were observed over the central portions of the Chesa- peake Bay and 1.5–2 m along the shore of the southern portion of the Bay in the vicinity of Hampton Roads, Virginia. Surge values of 2–2.5 m above normal levels occurred in the upper reaches of the Chesapeake Bay near Annapolis and Baltimore, Maryland, and in most of the main stem rivers draining into the Chesapeake Bay. Even higher surges occurred at the heads of the rivers, with values of 2.6 m above normal levels at the Richmond City locks along the James River in Virginia and nearly 2.4 m along the Potomac River in Washing- ton, D.C. Water levels exceeded previous record levels established in the Chesapeake—Potomac Hurricane of 1933 in Washington, D.C., Baltimore, and Annapolis.
3) CASUALTIES AND DAMAGES
Isabel is directly responsible for 17 deaths: 10 in Vir- ginia, 2 in New Jersey, and 1 each in North Carolina, Maryland, New York, Rhode Island, and Florida. The deaths in Florida and Rhode Island were from high surf generated by the hurricane. Isabel was indirectly re- sponsible for 34 deaths: 22 in Virginia, 6 in Maryland, 2 in North Carolina and Pennsylvania, and 1 each in New Jersey and the District of Columbia.
Isabel caused widespread wind and storm surge dam- age in coastal eastern North Carolina and southeastern Virginia. Storm surge damage also occurred along Chesapeake Bay and the associated river estuaries, and wind damage occurred over portions of the remaining