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MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW

VOLUME 133

FIG. 5. NOAA-16 visible satellite image of Hurricane Juan at 1752 UTC 28 Sep 2003. Maximum winds are estimated at 90 kt at the time of this image (courtesy of Naval Research Laboratory, Monterey, CA).

of the Halifax and Dartmouth waterfront properties. Hundreds of thousands of maritimers lost power in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island.

4) WARNINGS

A tropical storm warning was issued for Bermuda at 2100 UTC 25 September and was discontinued at 1800 UTC 26 September when Juan passed about 200 n mi to the east of the island. Heavy rain and strong wind warn- ings were issued by the Canadian Hurricane Center as early at 0600 UTC 26 September for portions of Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, or almost 3 days in advance of landfall.

k. Hurricane Kate, 25 September7 October

Kate had a long and rather unusual track over the east-central Atlantic. It became a powerful hurricane at subtropical latitudes.

A tropical wave crossed the coast of western Africa on 21 September and moved slowly westward, passing near the Cape Verde Islands on 23 September. Al- though the convection was not well organized, a low- level circulation center was located several hundred miles west-southwest of the Cape Verde Islands on 24 September. Cloudiness and deep convection gradually became better organized into curved bands, and it is estimated that a tropical depression formed about 800 n mi west-southwest of the Cape Verde Islands at 1800 UTC 25 September.

The tropical cyclone moved northwestward for two days toward a weakness in the subtropical ridge over the central Atlantic Ocean. Meanwhile, south-south- westerly upper-level flow caused strong vertical shear over the depression, and the low-cloud center was in- termittently exposed to the southwest of the main area of deep convection. Around 1800 UTC 27 September,

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