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Scott J. Simon / p. 4

you get & still have a revolution? Kuhn does not answer. And, are scientific revolutions

irreversible: many examples suggest otherwise: Newtonian & Liebnitzian calculus, A.A.

Robinson’s non-standard Analysis, Lamarckianism and the inheritance of acquired

characteristics, and Joshua Letterberg’s later rejection of Lamarckianism. All his suggests a logic

of counter-factuals (or what ifs) that Kuhn’s Paradigm theory seems ill equipped to address. And

finally, where do new “ideas” come from? Is it not “an irrational intuition”; can computer

investigation tell us? Kuhn’s probable guesses seem closer to the metaphysical web spinning of

the German idealists than to any post-positivist theory of science.

Perhaps more than Popper and Kuhn, it is Heisenberg’s principle that most damaged the

absolutist anti-metaphysics of positivism: the exact position and exact velocity of a particle

cannot be determined simultaneously. (x = position, p = velocity, h = magnitude); in addition, an

exact determination of energy and time cannot be determined simultaneously for a particle. What

this suggests is that we live in an indeterminate universe and that there is an “observer effect”

that disturbs any system under study…and absolute objectivity like that espoused by positivism

is a myth.

The many problems of positivism and falsificationism are the result of an “epistemological

mount Parnassus”; a fallacious Cartesian modern philosophical and metaphysical standpoint

according to Alfred North Whitehead; Whitehead suggests a mini-paradigm shift that leads us

away from Cartesian duality toward a Platonic metaphysics; a new theory of perception that

offers a way out of Cartesian subjectivity. Whitehead dubbed this Process philosophy, whose

historical roots reach back to Heraclitus the Poet, Anaxagoras the Chemist, and coalesces with

the German Idealists, Goethe, Schilling, Emerson, Dewey.

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