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representative of the actual cross section of the material or part installed in the airplane. When performing the test prescribed in paragraph (f) of this appendix, the specimen must be mounted in metal frame so that all four edges are held securely and the exposed area of the specimen is at least 8 inches by 8 inches.

(c) Apparatus. Except as provided in paragraph (g) of this appendix, tests must be conducted in a draft-free cabinet in accordance with Federal Test Method Standard 191 Method 5903 (revised Method 5902) which is available from the General Services Administration, Business Service Center, Region 3, Seventh and D Streets SW., Washington, D.C. 20407, or with some other approved equivalent method. Specimens which are too large for the cabinet must be tested in similar draft-free conditions.

(d) Vertical test. A minimum of three specimens must be tested and the results averaged. For fabrics, the direction of weave corresponding to the most critical flammability conditions must be parallel to the longest dimension. Each specimen must be supported vertically. The specimen must be exposed to a Bunsen or Tirrill burner with a nominal 3/8-inch I.D. tube adjusted to give a flame of 1 1/2 inches in height. The minimum flame temperature measured by a calibrated thermocouple pryometer in the center of the flame must be 1550 °F. The lower edge of the specimen must be three-fourths inch above the top edge of the burner. The flame must be applied to the center line of the lower edge of the specimen. For materials covered by §§23.853(d)(3)(i) and 23.853(f), the flame must be applied for 60 seconds and then removed. For materials covered by §23.853(d)(3)(ii), the flame must be applied for 12 seconds and then removed. Flame time, burn length, and flaming time of drippings, if any, must be recorded. The burn length determined in accordance with paragraph (h) of this appendix must be measured to the nearest one-tenth inch.”

Aircraft certified in Canada under CAR 523 have an identical requirement to FAR 23 as stated above.

Handheld Fire Extinguishers

Most pilots know that all powered aircraft, except ultralights, need fire extinguishers. That requirement is outlined in CAR 602.60 but that CAR is pretty general in nature. It just requires “a hand-held fire extinguisher in the cockpit that is

  • of a type suitable for extinguishing the fires that are likely to occur,

  • designed to minimize the hazard of toxic gas concentrations, and

  • readily available in flight to each flight crew member”

COPA Guide to Certified Aircraft 47

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