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First Days of School Lesson Plans Orange County Public Schools Instruction & Curriculum Services - page 16 / 31

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Reading Study Guide Chapter 1 Section 1 pages 5-9

Five Themes of Geography

BEFORE YOU READ

In this section, you will learn what geography is and about methods geographers use. In the next section, you read about the geographer’s tools.

Places and Terms

geography - study of the distribution and interaction of physical and human features on Earth

AS YOU READ Use this graphic to take notes about the five themes of geography.

absolute location – the exact location where a geographic feature is found

Five Themes

relative location – a place in relation to other places around it.

hemisphere – each half of the earth

equator – the imaginary line that divides the north and south halves of the earth.

prime meridian – imaginary line that divides the east and west halves of the earth.

latitude – imaginary lines that run parallel to the equator

longitude – imaginary lines that go around the earth and over the poles

The Geographer s Perspective (page 5)

What is geography?

What are some of the tools and methods used by geographers? _________________ ________________________________________ 1.

The word “geography” comes from a Greek word that means “to describe the earth.” Geographers look at the use of space on the earth and the interactions that take place there. They look for patterns and connections between people and the land on which they live. So geography is the study of the distribution and interaction of physical and human features on the earth.

Theme: Location (page 6)

How is location described?

Geographers describe location in two ways. Absolute location is the exact place where a geographic feature found. Relative location describes a place in relation to the other places around it.

Geographers use many methods to study the use of space and earth. The most common one is a map. Maps are representations of portions of the earth.

Geographers also use photographs to gain visual evidence about a place. They organize information into charts, graphs, or tables. This helps them to learn about geographic patterns and to understand changes over time.

To describe absolute location, geographers use a grid system of imaginary lines. Earth is divided into two equal halves, and each half is called a hemisphere.

The equator is the imaginary line that divides the north and south halves. The prime meridian is the imaginary line that divides the earth east and west.

Another basic tool used by geographers is the five themes of geography. These themes organize information about geography into five categories.

OCPS First Days of School Lesson Plans

16

To locate places north and south, geographers use latitude lines, imaginary lines that run parallel to the equator. Longitude lines are imaginary lines that go around the earth over the poles. Each site on earth can have only one absolute location.

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