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Hicks — Egoism in Nietzsche and Rand


accepts their implied demands on the terms they present.

Type 4 altruism is the altruism of power-lust. Nietzsche holds that all living beings embody and are driven by a will to power, but that the strategies pursued by the weaker must necessarily be more cunning. “The will of the weak to represent some form of superiority, their instinct for devious paths to tyranny over the healthy—where can it not be discovered, this will to power of the weakest!” (GM, 3:14). But unable to compete by means of physical vitality and vigor, the weak must employ psychological weapons: “the moral judgment” is the means by which the “weak and mediocre . . . weaken and pull down the stronger” (WP, 345).

Type 4 altruism is also prominent in both of Rand’s major novels. One sub-plot of The Fountainhead is the battle between Gail Wynand and Toohey. Wynand pursues the traditional “master” power strategy of physical wealth, including the physical intimidation of his business competitors, and the benefits wealth can bring; Toohey’s strategy is a more subtle and sneaky psychological route to power. A rare moment of self-revelation occurs late in the novel when Toohey explains his philosophy to a broken Peter Keating: “It’s only a matter of discovering the lever. If you learn how to rule one single man’s soul, you can get the rest of mankind. It’s the soul, Peter, the soul. Not whips or swords or fire or guns. That’s why the Caesars, the Attilas, the Napoleons were fools and did not last. We will. The soul, Peter, is that which can’t be ruled. It must be broken” (F, 4:14, 690).

Toohey’s particular tactics to achieve the had outlined: use the slave morality miserable, malevolent against himself:

strategy are ones Nietzsche to make the strong “sick, full of hatred against the

springs happy” “There

of life, full of suspicion against all that was still strong and (TI, 7:2; see also GM, 3:14). Toohey elaborates in detail: are many ways. Here’s one. Make man feel small. Make him

feel guilty. Kill his ness. Tell man that

aspiration and his integrity. . he must live for others. Tell

. . Preach selfless- man that altruism is

the ideal. Not a single one of them single one ever will. His every living don’t you see what you accomplish?

has ever achieved it and not a instinct screams against it. But Man realizes that he’s incapable

of what he’s accepted as the noblest virtue—and it gives of guilt, of sin, of his own basic unworthiness” (F, 4:14, individuals are weakened and much easier to manipulate

him a sense 690). Guilty and rule.

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