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The Journal of Ayn Rand Studies Vol. 10, No. 2

believes, is an obstacle to the advancement of the species. In the first part of Zarathustra, Nietzsche complains that “All-too-many live, and all-too-long they hang on their branches. Would that a storm came to shake all this worm-eaten rot from the tree!” (Z, First Part).

The state is the creation of “a conqueror- and master-race which, organized for war and with the force to organize unhesitatingly lays its terrible claws upon a populace perhaps tremendously superior in numbers but still formless and wandering” (GM, II:17). This is not a bad thing, for a healthy ruling class “accepts with a good conscience the sacrifice of untold human beings, who, for its sake, must be reduced and lowered to incomplete human beings, to slaves, to instruments” (BGE, 258). But good conscience has been poisoned by the slave morality, so Nietzsche’s “serious” goal, as he puts it, is “the cultivation of a new caste that will rule Europe” (BGE, 251).

Consequently, while Rand argues forcefully for the equality of rights and equality before the law—“‘Equality,’ in a human context, is a political term: it means equality before the law, the equality of fundamental, inalienable rights which every man possesses by virtue of his birth as a human being, and which may not be infringed or abrogated by man-made institutions, such as titles of nobility or the division of men into castes established by law, with special privileges granted to some and denied to others” (“The Age of Envy,” NL 164)

  • Nietzsche argues the exact opposite: “For the preservation of

society, for making possible higher and highest types—the inequality of rights is the condition” (A, 57).

Slavery and Freedom, War and Peace

The vocabulary of slavery and war are regular and, given the above, logically consequential features of Nietzsche’s writings.

Rand’s condemnation of slavery is clear. She praises the Enlight- enment system that “drove slavery out of the civilized world” (AS, II:10, 679). She singles out the United States for praise—“The nation that ran an underground railroad to help human beings escape from slavery” (“Don’t Let It Go,” Part 2, ARL 1:5, 6 December 1971). She recognizes the stain of slavery in parts of early America: “Certainly, slavery was an enormous evil. But a country that fought a civil war to abolish slavery, has atoned for it” (“Moral Inflation,” Part 3, ARL 3:14, 8 April 1974). And she identifies slavery’s great immorality in its

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