4) The detection of faking and the use of top down models
Top down models are the scores of all of the test takers from the highest score in a certain trait down to the lowest score.
Employment facilities choose the highest scoring individuals.
However, the highest scores are most likely affected by social desirability or impression management.
Arthur, W. Jr., Woehr, D.J., & Graziano, W. (2001). Personality testing in employment
Settings: Problems and issues in the application of typical selection practices.
Personnel Review, 2001, Vol. 30, Issue 5/6, 657. 20.