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26

A JAILHOUSE LAWYERS MANUAL

Ch. 2

APPENDIX A

CITATION EXAMPLES OF COMMON AUTHORITIES

A-1.

Federal Cases

reporter abbreviation (U.S. Reports)

v” for versus reporter volume

specific page referred to (pin cite)

Illinois v. Rodriguez, 497 U.S. 177, 186 (1990).31

first party

second party first page of

case

date of decision (no court is indicated as it is clear from reporter name that this is a United States Supreme Court case)

parties

reporter abbreviation (Federal Reporter (Second Series))

United States v. Kokinda, 866 F.2d 699 (4th Cir. 1989), rev’d, 497 U.S. 720 (1990).

Citation of case in which higher court took action

deciding court

date of decision

action taken by a higher court, in this case, the United States Supreme Court (“rev’d” stands for reversed)

Shortform (abbreviated) citation for the above case after it has been cited in full earlier in your legal paper:

Volume number and reporter

Kokinda, 497 U.S. at 725.

shortened case name (case name should be italicized) Do not use a governmental party as the named party (e.g., State), because many other cases will also have the name of a governmental party in them. Use the other party’s name instead.

specific page referred to (pin cite)

31.

You will notice that the JLM often cites to many different reporters for each case. Often, cases are published in

more than one reporter; these “extra” citations are “parallel citations.” If possible, you should always cite to an official reporter (for example, “U.S.,” or “F.2d.”). If you do not have the official reporter available at your prison library, just

make sure that your citation to an unofficial reporter is accurate.

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