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Ch. 2

INTRODUCTION TO LEGAL RESEARCH

27

A-2.

State Cases

reporter volume number, reporter abbreviation, and page

parties

(New York Reports, Second Series—the official reporter of the New York Court of Appeals)

Hynes v. Tomei, 92 N.Y.2d 613, 706 N.E.2d 1201, 684 N.Y.S.2d 177 (1998), cert. denied, 119 S. Ct. 2359 (1999)

Action taken by a higher court, in this case, the United States Supreme Court. (“cert. denied” indicates that the U.S. Supreme Court denied the petition for certiorari). The reporter “S. Ct.” is an unofficial reporter for the U.S. Supreme Court. This is a recent case—often cases are available in the Supreme Court Reports (“S. Ct.”) before they are printed in the United States Reports (“U.S.”). The next number is the citation of the case in which the Supreme Court took action.

parallel citations The two citations that refer to “N.E.2d” and “N.Y.S.2d” are parallel citations. For more information on parallel citations, see note 29 of this Appendix A.

A-3. Constitutions

United States Constitution

abbreviation for amendment

U.S. Const. amend. I.

abbreviation of constitution cited

number of amendment cited

State Constitution

abbreviation for article

N.Y. Const. art. IV, § 7.

abbreviation of constitution cited

section symbol and specific section cited

number of article cited

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