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dent andrew Jacksons indian removal of the 1830s, the Gold rush of the 1840s and 1850s, and the Civil War of the 1860s had revealed massive evil within american society. The apocalypse of John, written in the first cen- tury, did not respond to experiences of historical success,” in any established sense of the word. it attempted to uncover and overcome contemporary, “un- successful,” traumatic history by means of the Word of God and in the quiet certitude of Jesuslordship. it referred not to an ideal past but to a future that had already begun. Today, the ordinary use of “apocalypse” or apocalyptic” mostly points to spectacular changes and catastrophes in last days.” Where there is a tendency to catastrophism, a spell of coming catastrophes, and an according use of apocalyptical themes, i speak of “apocalypticism.”

also specific to american millennialism, but again not exclusive, was the connection, around 1800, of emerging american postmillennialist overseas mission with the postulate of the restoration of the Jews to palestine and to Jesus. Jews had to return to palestine as restorers of israel and to Jesus, their king. restorationists were Zionists avant la lettre. in contrast to the Zionists, however, they hoped that the Jews, to whom Jesus belonged so viscerally, would at last take him in and greatly take strength from him. This would happen either after their return to palestine or before (as most restorationists expected pre-1800). Without coming to new terms with Jesus, restored israel would lack the spiritual power and global acceptance it needed to be the nucleus of the Kingdom of God.16

The early american missionaries hoped, moreover, that the muslims would come to new, Christian terms with Jesus, whom the muslims already respected as a prophet. american missionaries did not, however, know much about the muslim Jesus, and they knew little or nothing about muslim es- chatology, the reign of the mahdi, or of a sahib, a muslim leader in apoca- lyptic times. it is striking that they did not know about the old traditions of muslim expectation of Jesus’—isa ibn maryamssecond coming and final reign on earth. it is true that muslim apocalypticism was, in the Ottoman world of that time, not as influential a current as it has been since the late twentieth century. The term millennium and direct biblical references could, in that time, scarcely be found in the muslim context. The muslim apoca- lyptic heritage, of which millennialism is an undeniable part, nevertheless existed; it became more topical with the Ottoman existential crisis of the late eighteenth century and the emergence of islamism in the late nineteenth century. it has finally boomed, both in militant and quietist forms, since the islamic renaissance of the second half of the twentieth century.17

eschatology in the Ottoman world is not a well-researched topic, at least not for the last two Ottoman centuries. it is, however, safe to say that in the

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