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Dr. Paurav Shukla

Concept

EPRG Schema

Domestic Market Extension

(Ethnocentric)

Multi-Domestic Market

(Polycentric)

Global Marketing

(Regio/Geocentric)

International Marketing Concepts

New & Future (Possible) Multinational Market Groups

  • European Union

  • European Economic Area (EC and EFTA)

  • North American Free Trade Area

  • Asean Free Trade Area (AFTA)

  • Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

  • Central European Free Trade Area (CEFTA)

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Possible Regional Trade Groups

  • Western Hemisphere Free Trade Areas (WHFTA)

Canada to Argentina

  • Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)

  • Pacific Rim Countries including U.S.

  • U.S./ Canada/Mexico/Japan

  • South American Free Trade Area (SAFTA)

  • Chinese Economic Area (CEA)

  • Hong Kong, Taiwan, Coastal Provinces of So. China

  • U.S./European Union

  • Many possibilities of Republics of Russia, Baltic States

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Ties that Bind: Japanese Keiretsu and Toyota

Lighting

Koito Mfg.

Rubber

Toyoda Gosel

Disc Brakes

Akebona

Transmissions, clutches, brakes

Aisin Seiki

Clocks

Jeco

Electronics

Nippondenso

Seat belts, switches

Tokai Rika

Steel

Aichi Steel Works

Upholstery material

Kyowa Leather

Door sashes, molding

Shiroki

Painting

Trinity

Mufflers

Futaba Industrial

SOURCE: Adapted from “Japan: All in the Family,” Newsweek, June 10, 1991, p 38.

Toyota has a typical keiretsu family with financial ties to its most important suppliers. Some of those companies, with the percentage of each that Toyota owns:

19.0 % 41.4 13.9 22.0 34.0 23.6 28.2 21.0 33.5 13.2 30.2 13.2

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Company

Country

Percent Equity

Mazda

Japan

25%

Kia Motors

Korea

10%

Aston Martin Lagonda

Britain

75%

Autolatina

Brazil-Argentina

49%

Iveco Ford Truck

Britain

48%

Ford’s Keiretsu

VEHICLE ASSEMBLY

PARTS PRODUCTION

SOURCE: Adapted from “Learning from Japan,” Business Week, January 27, 1992, p. 55.

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Engines

10%

Windows

40

Body Parts, Wheels

49

Decoma International Canada

Component

Percent Equity

Company

Country

Cummins

.. US

Excel Industries

U.S.

Ford’s Keiretsu

Financial Services

Through seven wholly owned units, Ford extends consumer and commercial credit. It issues car loans, mortgages, and credit cards, does industrial leases and finances dealer purchases of cars.

Marketing

Owns 49 percent of Hertz. Hertz and other car rentals are among Ford s largest customers.

Research and Development

Ford belongs to eight consortiums that do research into environmental issues, better engineering techniques, materials, electric car batteries, and the Chrysler and General Motors “precompetitive research” on batteries and materials.

SOURCE: Adapted from “Learning from Japan,” Business Week, January 27, 1992, p. 55.

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Marketing

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