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(evaluation of the experiment in school scheduling in 2000, for example) have not been generalised, with the practice of evaluation still often remaining a synonym for budgetary control or compliance (in other words, ‘evaluation’ in the administrative sense).

Other constructive forms of collaboration between researchers and decision-makers could be implemented via: Ö public discussions, on condition that the researchers called on represent the “state of the art” for a given situation. A specialist is not a purveyor of new knowledge, nor does he provide a decision-maker with ready-made solutions: his function is to facilitate the definition of what is unacceptable or impossible, thanks to his knowledge of the whole field; Ö research seminars organised for decision-makers to enable them to understand the thinking modes required for research; Ö consensus conferences (borrowed from the medical field) to build a reasonable collective position via dialogue between researchers/users.

For such modes of cooperation to be productive, they require direct oral contact between researchers and users to facilitate the generation of a shared position. It could also be constructive to negotiate research projects at local level, with researchers and decision-makers working together to build the conditions needed for research thinking.

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