Pupils will not know some of the words used in the text. Meanings are given below, followed by an exercise in matching words and meanings.
Teachers may choose to provide some or all of the meanings to help pupils read and understand the story. An approach that leads to better learning is to ask pupils to complete as much of Activity 1 as possible during their first encounter with the text.
By tackling this exercise and those that follow – which are known collectively as directed activities related to texts (DARTs) – pupils can engage with a piece of writing, and learn a great deal from it, even when many of its ideas and words are unfamiliar to them.
watery liquid that surrounds an embryo. It is contained in a thin, tough sac called the amnion.
kept in reserve in case it’s needed
the building block of all living things except viruses
fertilisation of egg by sperm
something that makes it what it is
of a disease: in which the body or mind works less and less well, as time goes on
grow bigger and better formed
illness, often caused by something going wrong, rather than infection
giant molecule that contains the genes; short for deoxyribonucleic acid
the outermost of the three layers of an embryo, which grows into the skin and nervous system
early stage in development of an animal or plant following fertilisation of an egg cell. In humans the word is used for the fertilised egg during its first seven weeks of existence; from the eighth week on it is called a foetus.
of the embryo
the innermost of the three layers of an embryo, which becomes the digestive system
designed and made; artificial