4. The belief that students’ confidence in their intelligence is the key to mastery-oriented qualities
In a way, it seems only logical to assume that students who have confidence in their intelligence – who clearly believe they are smart – would have nothing to fear from challenge and would be somehow inoculated against the ravages of failure. But many of the most confident individuals do not want their intelligence too stringently tested, and their high confidence is all too quickly shaken when they are confronted with difficulty.
(Henderson & Dweck, 1990; Dweck & Lin, 1998)