capsize lines (ensuring the lines are routed under the safety lines) and stand on the buoyancy tubes opposite the capsize lines anchor points. The boat is then turned over by the three, five and seven men by leaning back and straightening their legs as they pull back on the capsize lines. As the boat lifts off the water, the number four man grasps the center carrying handle and rides the boat over. Once the boat is over, the number four man helps the number three and seven men back onto the boat at which time the number five man holds onto the center carrying handle and again, the boat is turned over the same way. The number five man rides the boat back over and helps the rest of the crew into the boat.
d. Coxswain's duties. As soon as the boat is capsized, the coxswain commands a long count to ensure that no one is trapped under the boat or sank. Every time the boat is turned over, a long count must be conducted.
9‑13. RIVER MOVEMENT.
a. Characteristics of River:
(1) Know local conditions prior to embarking on river movement.
(2) A bend is a turn in the river course.
(3) A reach is a straight portion of river between two curves.
(4) A slough is a dead end branch from a river. They are normally quite deep and can be distinguished from the true river by their lack of current
(5) Dead water is a part of the river, due to erosion and changes in the river course that has no current. Excessive snags and debris characterize dead water.
(6) An island is usually a pear‑shaped mass of land in the main current of the river. Upstream portions of islands usually catch debris and are avoided.
(7) The current in a narrow part of a reach is normally greater than in the wide portion.
(8) The current is greatest on the outside of a curve; sandbars and shallow water are found on the inside of the curve.
(9) Sandbars are located at those points where a tributary feeds into the main body of a river or stream.
(10) The coxswain and the #1 man must (and the observer, if designated) watch the water for obstacles and overhanging vegetation and projections from the bank.
b. Navigation. The Patrol Leader is responsible for navigation. There are three acceptable methods of river navigation which are used:
(1) Checkpoint and general route. These methods are used when the drop site is marked by a well‑defined checkpoint and the waterway is not confused by a lot of branches and tributaries. They are best used during daylight hours and for short distances.
(2) Navigator‑observer method. This method is the most accurate means of river navigation and is used effectively in all light conditions.
(a) Equipment needed:
Photo map(1st choice)