Common Aquarium Fish Diseases and Their Control Measures
Fish suffer ill health from a variety of reasons. The best way to prevent the disease is to maintain a healthy environment in the aquarium for all times to avoid the stress which is one of the most important factor for many fish diseases. Stress may be associated with the temperature variation, deterioration of water quality, stocking density, insufficient or excess supply of food and poor environmental conditions. To overcome this problem one should take care of these factors.
Before going to diagnosis of fish disease one should know the condition of healthy and unhealthy fish. Healthy fishes generally have clean body, erect fins, bright body colour, bright eyed, faster movement if frightened and skin and fins are in intact conditions. While unhealthy fishes may change of four factors. Common clinical symptoms shows by unhealthy fishes are irregular swimming movement, jumping of the fish, rubbing of the body against any rough substrate, surfacing on water, gasping air, refusal of feed and excessive mucus secretion etc. Abdominal swelling or cyst formation also indicates some internal disorder of fish.
Commonly occurring tropical aquarium fish disease and their control :
Types A. Parasital disease
1. White spot disease Ichthyophthirius multifiliis
Tiny white nodules or spot on the body, fins and gills covered; can be seen with
Prolong Bath : Malachit green : 0.05- 0.10mg/l,10day Flush : Malachite green+
2. Velvet disease Oodinium spp
3. Blue slime Costia necatrix
Dusty appearance of yellow or rust colour on gills and skin. Slimy bluish-white appearance of the skin.
Formalin : 0.5ppm+100- 160 ppm for 1-3hours alternate days Prolong Bath : Methylene blue : 1- 2drops of 5%solution Short Bath : NaCl : 1.5-2.5% Long Bath : NaCl : 0.7-1.0% Dip:CuSo4 :500ppm for1min. Prolong Bath : M. green :0.15mg/l Bath:Formalin:160-250mg/lt. For 1h. Short Bath : NaCl : 1.5- 2.5%soln
4. Trichodiniasis Trichodina spp
5. Whirling disease Myxosoma cerebralis
6. Neon Tetra disease Endoprotozoan parasites
Greyish-blue veil like coating over the body surface; colour of the gills turns pale
Whirling movement of the fish; malformation of vertebral olumn, cranium etc. Milky white patches shine through skin, especially on Neon tetra ; in the Neon the iridescent strip is broken up, hence common name
Prolong Bath 1%st. soln
Acriflavine : 0.001% soln. NaCl : 0.7-1.0%soln Difficult to control, remove the sick fish.
Long Bath : Methelene blue : 1g/100lt. 1-2 hours