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However, implementing empowerment in education has been shown to raise not only the learning but also the self-confidence of the students. Both these results are outcomes that are required in developing countries.

The facilities

It is not an accident that educational facilities in developing countries leave a lot to be desired. These are the items that corruptors have found easiest to make illicit gains from, ranging from marking up costs of buildings, equipment and plants to under-specifying quality of work, books, computers etc. and of course accepting lower quality items for quality specified ones.

Again, as part of implementation and evaluation, facilities should be subject to outcomes assessments. Quality will be assured through this requirement rather than quality directly.

The students

With the background of poor primary and secondary education, higher education institutions entrants in developing countries may not have the necessary educational and learning prerequisites to become successful graduates.

In a country like Indonesia, for example, where there are more than twenty times more private higher education institutions than state’s, and attempts to control these private institutions had provided opportunities for fraudulent practices, students are therefore no more and no less than a commodity whose fate is of no concern to anybody.

The consequence of that is that there are serious quality problems with many if not the majority of higher education students in Indonesia.

Reminding ourselves of the product or multiplicative effects of the elements of a quality system, students as one of the elements must also have a very high quality level in order to ensure that the system has a high quality overall.

N IDRUS  TRANSFORMING QUALITY FOR DEVELOPMENT KEYNOTE PAPER 7QHES, 29-31 OCTOBER 2002, MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA

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