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Whether or not that this is due to their relatively small number is still a question mark. Do we always need numbers in order to be influential? Others would claim that these graduates are not holding important enough positions in order to be influential, a claim that is not supported by facts. Yet others would claim that in fact the Berkeley Mafia as they became to be known, was so influential in Indonesia, that they shaped the economic future of the country. The Berkeley Mafia comprised economic ministers in the Indonesian cabinet during the early years of the Suharto Government, who were all graduates of University of California – Berkeley. Thirty years later, cynics would ask if these people really did shape the economic future of the country or was it the generosity of the USA and other developed nations that gave Indonesia the ephemeral respite from the economic and financial quagmire that it has returned to in 1998.

In the area of higher education in Indonesia, for example, a case study had shown (Idrus & Dyah, 2001) that ITB (Bandung Institute of Technology in Bandung, Indonesia) with more than 70% of their faculty having either graduated from or spent considerable time at overseas universities in the developed countries, does not have and does not reflect a culture that one expects from organizations with the majority of its people having been trained overseas.

Has quality failed to influence such people that they returned to the indigenous culture when they came back from overseas where they were successful in meeting the requirements for their qualifications? Interestingly, has transformative learning (Harvey, 2002) in the West failed to transform the people who came to them from the developing countries?

The dilemmas of education in developing countries

The problem with education is that it makes the people think and question things. For the leaders of developing countries plagued by the challenges of governing, it is bliss to

N IDRUS  TRANSFORMING QUALITY FOR DEVELOPMENT KEYNOTE PAPER 7QHES, 29-31 OCTOBER 2002, MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA

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