X hits on this document

105 views

0 shares

0 downloads

0 comments

13 / 26

xiii

List of Figures

Fig. 2–1 Global Temperatures throughout Geological History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Fig. 2–2 World Primary Energy Substitution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Fig. 2–3 Limits to Growth World Model Standard Run . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Fig. 2–4 Successive Forecasts by the International Energy Workshop . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Fig. 3–1 World Historical Coal Production by Major Country . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Fig. 3–2 Coal Production in Major Countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Fig. 3–3 U.S. Historical Coal Prices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Fig. 3–4 Supply and Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 Fig. 3–5 Increase in Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 Fig. 3–6 Decrease in Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 Fig. 3–7 Price Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 Fig. 3–8 Representative Business Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 Fig. 3–9 U.S. Gross National Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 Fig. 3–10 Government Share per Barrel of Oil, 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67 Fig. 3–11 Supply and Demand in an Energy Market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70 Fig. 3–12 Supply and Demand with a Unit Tax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70 Fig. 3–13 Supply and Demand with a Tax on the Consumer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 Fig. 3–14 Incidence of a Unit or Volume Tax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73 Fig. 3–15 Consumer Surplus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74 Fig. 3–16 Supply Equals Marginal Cost in a Competitive Market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 Fig. 3–17 Producer Plus Consumer Surplus in a Competitive Market . . . . . . . . . . . .76 Fig. 3–18 Deadweight Loss from an Energy Tax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77 Fig. 4–1 U.S. Retail Electricity Consumption, 1949–2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82 Fig. 4–2 Electricity Consumption and Population by Major World Regions . . . . . . .83 Fig. 4–3 U.S. and World Electricity Production by Fuel Type, 2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84 Fig. 4–4 Decreasing Average Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87 Fig. 4–5 Increasing Average Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 Fig. 4–6 Average Variable Cost and Marginal Cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 Fig. 4–7 Typical Daily Electric Load Curves for Israel, Jordan, and Egypt . . . . . . . . .90 Fig. 4–8 U.S. 2000 Net Electricity Consumption by Month . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 Fig. 4–9 Decreasing Cost Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 Fig. 4–10 Monopoly Producer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95 Fig. 4–11 Social Optimum in a Natural Monopoly Market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97 Fig. 4–12 Peak Load Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107 Fig. 5–1 Deregulation in U.S. Electricity Sector, 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125 Fig. 5–2 Peak Load Demand and Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129 Fig. 6–1 Social Welfare in a Competitive Market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136 Fig. 6–2 Monopoly Producer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139 Fig. 6–3 Numerical Example of Monopoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140 Fig. 6–4 Competitive Supply in a Constant Cost Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141 Fig. 6–5 Social Losses from Monopoly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142 Fig. 6–6 (a) and 6–6 (b) Monopolist and Price Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143 Fig. 6–7 U.S. Oil Prices, 1861–2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148 Fig. 6–8 OPEC Production and Quotas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151

Document info
Document views105
Page views107
Page last viewedTue Dec 06 14:10:51 UTC 2016
Pages26
Paragraphs236
Words11326

Comments