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lords and the striking beauty of the countryside he passed through. An attempt at a peace between the Confederates and the Lord Lieutenant failed because Rinnuccini felt it didn't offer enough guarantees for Catholics.

2. The Battle of Knocknanuss November 24th 1647. Knocknanuss is a townland in the parish of Castlemagner, close to Assolas house. It was the site of a fierce battle between Royalist supporters of Charles I and Parliamentarian forces, the factions supporting Oliver Cromwell which had landed in Ireland earlier in 1647. The Royalists were led by Theobold Lord Taffe from Sligo, who held the commission of the Catholic Confederacy. His army comprised of 6,500 soldiers (4,500 foot soldiers and nearly 2,000 cavalry). It included a regiment of 2,000 led by the famous Dalriada soldier, Alexander McDonnell. Amongst the horse soldiers were a group of 500 led by McDonagh of Kanturk and another 500 led by Lord Castleconnel. The Parliamentary force was under the command of Murrough O'Brien, Lord Inchiquin, who was a direct descendant of the O'Briens of Thomond. The Battle is noteworthy for the curious proposal by Taffe that the fighting should be done by 2,000 foot soldiers from each side, fighting more for recreation than a serious purpose.. This suggestion was ignored by Inchiquin, who suddenly attacked a force, much better positioned and superior in number, and gained an overwhelming victory. During the three hour battle about 4,500 men were killed, including Alexander McDonnell, who is buried in Clonmeen. It is suggested that Lieut. Eneas O'Daly of Ballydaly fought in this battle and was subsequently taken prisoner ( D. O'Murcadha: Family names of County Cork, p.l 15).

The Battle of the Boyne.

Charles II had come to the throne in 1660 and when he was succeeded by the Catholic king James II a nervousness ensued amongst Irish Protestants. In 1668, James' son-in-law William of Orange was invited to take over the throne of England.

James fled to France and in 1669 landed in Ireland with French support. He hoped to use Ireland as a jumping-off ground to regain his throne. He was defeated at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690. The dire consequences of the conquest of Ireland during the 17th Century (Kinsale, Benburb, the Cromwellian Settlement, the Boyne and Treaty of Limerick) were intensified by the Penal Laws of the early 18th Century.

The Penal Laws.

These were a series of anti-Catholic measures enacted between 1695 and 1709 which affected their civil and property rights, access to profession, education and religion. Dr. Alan Acheson, a Church of Ireland scholar, in his recent history of that Church, comments thus: "A Protestant nation devised the Penal Laws. Their inspiration was fear, their aim was security and their method was total control. They conferred on Protestants a monopoly of civil and military offices and on Catholics a political, economic and social inferiority"(1999,p.59).

The first Penal Act of 1695, prohibited Catholics from carrying arms, owning horses worth more than £5 and sending their children abroad for education.


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refused to Abraham

sell his horse

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Morris, he

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murdered near Carriganima inspired the renowned caoine

by one of Morris' agents. "His death by his wife Eibhlin Dubh ni Chonaill.

In the act of 1697, bishops and regular clergy (i.e. belonging to religious orders) were given nine months to leave the country. At the time there were 833 secular and 390 regular clergy in the country. This harsh measure resulted in the banishment for life of approximately 500 clergy (including bishops). The act did not include secular priests who were allowed to remain on in the country. It was hoped that they would die off for want of succession because there would be no bishops to ordain them.

Another Act prevented clergy, either secular or religious, from, coming into the country. Those harbouring or concealing them were liable to penalties. As a pendant to this act, a bill was prepared for registering Popish clergy. The proclamation received Royal assent on March 4th 1704. All secular priests, resident in Ireland, were required to go before a magistrate and register their name, abode, age, parish in which they officiated, how long they resided there and the time and place of their ordination. They were ordered at high peril to do so within 21 days. A record of those registered in that year, shows 36 priests in Kerry and 60 in Cork Parish Priests were not allowed to have curates.

Listed as resident in Ballydaly was Owen McFineen Ferris. Born in 1665, he was ordained in Brabant by the Bishop of Antwerp in 1687. He was Parish Priest of Drishane. He is alleged to have brought a Bull of Pope Innocent XII to this country which appointed


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