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Battery Powered

Battery Life*

External Gas Required

Oxygen Cylinder Duration (min)†

Disconnect Alarm

High- Pressure Alarm

Able to Ventilate Normal Lungs

Able to Ventilate Injured Lungs

Ease of Use‡

Sophisticated Univent Eagle 754 VersaMed iVent Newport HT50 Pulmonetic Systems LTV 1000 Simple Oceanic Medical Products Magellan Bio-Med Devices IC2A Pneupac Parapac Medic Pneupac Parapac Transport 200D Life Support Products AutoVent 2000 Carevent ATVVortran RespirTech ProPercussionaire TXPBio-Med Devices Crossvent 3** Bird Avian** Pneupac Compac 200

Yes Yes Yes Yes

4h 90 min 8 h, 10 min 75 min

No No No No

35 52 46 32

Yes Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes

No Yes Yes No

1 1 1 1

No No No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes


Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No

60 30 68§ 62 60 65 Variable 77¶ 53 30 65

Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No No No Yes Yes

Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No No No Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes

No Yes No No No No No Yes No No No

1 2 1 1 1 1 3 3 1 1 2


Table 2.

Operational Features of Evaluated Ventilators: Battery, Gas Consumption, Alarms, and Ease of Use

* B a t t e r y l i f e i s b a s e d o n t i d a l v o l u m e ( V T ) o f 1 L , r e s p i r a t o r y r a t e o f 1 0 b r e a t h / m i n , a n d f r a c t i o n o f i n s p i r e d o x y g e n ( F I O 2 ) o f 0 . 2 1 . T h e o x y g e n c y l i n d e r d u r a t i o n i s t h e t i m e i t t o o k t o c o n s u m e 1 f u l l E - s i z e o x y g e n c y l i n d e r w i t h t h e v e n t i l a t o r s e t a t V T o f 1 L , r e s p i r a t o r y r a t e o f 1 0 b r e a t h s / m i n , a n d ‡Ease of use: 1 clearly labeled and easy to access; 2 clearly labeled but difficult to access; 3 not clearly labeled and difficult to access. §VT gradually decreased as cylinder became depleted to 200 mL just before the ventilator shut down. True pressure-cycled ventilator. Changes in resistance or compliance significantly altered the delivered VT. Difficult to set at desired parameters. ¶FIO2 fixed at 0.5. **Pneumatically powered, electronically controlled ventilator. Battery and/or alternating current electricity are required for electronic controls, monitoring, etc. Compressed gas is required for ventilation. NA not applicable F I O of 1.0 2

schema. Five of the ventilators tested can be classified as sophisticated transport ventilators; the other ten are simple transport ventilators.

Eight of the ventilators were purely pneumatic (they rely completely on compressed gas and do not require any other power source). Most of these incorporate an air- entrainment device to provide different FIO2 values. The Oceanic Medical Products Magellan and the Life Support Products AutoVent 2000 are the exceptions; all breaths are delivered with 100% source gas. Four ventilators were capable of ventilating with only battery or alternating- current power. Oxygen was not required, but may be added t o i n c r e a s e F I O 2 .

The third group consisted of the 3 ventilators that re- quire both compressed gas and electricity (battery or al- ternating current). These ventilators incorporate a pneu- matic gas-delivery system and also require battery or alternating current to operate their electronic controls.

Table 1 shows the ventilators’ physical dimensions and ventilation modes. There are considerable differences in the size and weight. In some ventilators the modes are very limited, whereas others have multiple pressure and volume modes.

Gas consumption (Table 2) ranged from 30 min to 77 min.

Battery life ranged from 75 min to 8 hours and 10 min. All except 5 ventilators (Bio-Med Devices IC2A, Bio-Med Devices Crossvent 3, Life Support Products AutoVent 2000, Percussionaire TXP, and Vortran RespirTech Pro) incorporated both a low-pressure/disconnect alarm and a high-inspiratory-pressure alarm.

One interesting finding was with the Bio-Med Devices Crossvent 3. When changing from the “Air Mix” setting to 100% oxygen, the delivered VT approximately doubled above the set VT. According to the manufacturer, this is expected, and the operations manual instructs to adjust the flow accordingly.

The Percussionaire TXP was the most difficult to oper- ate, and its controls were not clearly identified. The Bio- Med Devices IC2 and the Oceanic Medical Products Ma- gellan were the only ventilators operable near a magnetic resonance imaging device.

Tables 3 and 4 show the bench performance data. Most of the ventilators performed at or close to specifications under bench test conditions. The measured VT of most of the ventilators was less than the set VT, and this discrep- ancy increased under conditions of increased resistance or decreased compliance. Seventy-eight individual tests were performed at a VT of 1,000 mL. In 32 of these tests the



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