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negative figure.228 Several times the stranger is obviously a foreign nation (eqnh allotria).229 Other times the

stranger is simply someone who is unknown and therefore ambiguous; one could not trust such unknown quantities.230 The stranger might also be the man by whom one was cuckolded (23:22-23) or the person to whom one was beholden for the necessities of life.231

The ambiguities of the strangers are due to the fact that they stand outside the peer group of the protagonist. They are not properly qualified and duly certified members of the social group in question. This is clearest when "Dathan and Abiram and their men and the company of Korah"

228 As in 8:18, 9:8, 11:34; 21:25; 23:22, 23; 19:18, 22; 33(36):2; 39:4; 40:29(2x); 45:18; 49:5. allotrioj at

35(32):18 stems from the confusion of r and d; the Hebrew text (cf. Levi) reads dz but the translator read rz.

Whereas allotrioj is primarily negative (eteroj is primarily innocent; cf. 11:19, 31; 14:4, 15, 18; 30:28 (33:19); 35(32):9; 41:20; 42:3; 49:5. Its only negative usage occurs at 11:6 where it is noted that "illustrious men have been handed over to the hands of eterwn." B* S 157 545*, however, read etairwn; similar confusion appears at 14:4; 42:3; and Wisd. 14:24. L-248 provides corroboration that these "others, companions" are in reality enemies by its reading of exqrwn. See J. Ziegler, ed., Sapientia Iesu Filii Sirach (Gottingen: Vandenhoeck and Auprecht, 1965),


Sir, 29:18; 33(36):2; 39:4; 49:


8:18; 11:34.

231 29:22; 40:29. The "dependent one" on 29:21-28 is designated a paroike (vv. 26, 27; cf. v. 24) which

probably translates rg or bwvt. There are, unfortu- nately, lacunae in the Hebrew texts.

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