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of wild beasts which God sent against Israel is mentioned (16:5).

Wisdom 5:17, part of a passage dealing with the con- trasting fates of the righteous and the ungodly, mentions God's enemies, who are also called the "madmen" (parafronaj). Occasionally, an agent of God appears

who is designated by enemy vocabulary. Thus, God's anger is once directed against Israel (18:21)269 and, once against Egypt (19:1), and God's "all-powerful word" which accom- plished the death of Egypt's firstborn is designated as a

"warrior" (polemisthj, 18:15).270 The conventional usage of byvx (=exqroj 271

) within

the Psalms and especially the historical literature of the Old Testament is in reference to Israel's political

268 5:20; the "ungodly" which properly belongs to the fwr-group will be discussed in connection with that

category below; it may be noted now, however, that these are also identified with Israel's historical enemies at 10:20; 11:9; 16:16, 18.

269 270 Cf. Num. 17:6-15. Two further terms, the "adversaries" (anqesthkotwn, Wisd. 2:18) and the "one who despises wisdom and instruc- tion" (sofian . . . kai paideia o ecouqenwn, 3:11), which properly belong to this category will be dealt with in the discussion of the group below since they are here used only with reference to the "ungodly" (asebeij).

271 Cf. the statistics on byvx-exqroj in n. 175 above.

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