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enemies,272 so that the writer of the Wisdom of Solomon simply followed the lead of scriptural sources. This usage

is likely the earliest in the byvx-group.273 What is

interesting about these designations in Wisdom is their antithetic relation to a few designations which indicate a positive religious stance. In Wisdom the enemies oppose Israel, who is designated as a "holy people and blameless race,"274 "holy men"275 and the "righteous."276 At this point, the writer has exhibited a shift from Sirach where the designation "righteous" does not occur in enemy contexts.

The fwr-Group

Wisdom uses asebhj ("ungodly") more often than any other designation belonging to this category.277 Occa- sionally amartwloj ( "sinner" )278 appears and anomoj

273

Ruppert, pp. 8-13, 104-105.

274

10:15.

272 Cf. H. Ringgren, "byx ‘ayabh; b eyOx ‘oyebh; hbAy ex," ‘ebhah,” Theological Dictionary of the Old Testa-

ment, ed. by G. Botterweck and H. Ringgren, trans. by J. Willis, Vol. I (rev. ed., Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1977), 214-215.

275 276 277 10:17. 10:20; 16:7, 23; 18:7; cf. 5:15. 1:9, 16; 3:10; 4:3, 16; 5:14; 10:6, 20; 11:9; 12:9; 16:16, 18; 19:1; cf. also asebeia and o asebwn in 14:9.

278 4:10; 19;13; cf. also amartanwn in 14:31 and amartia in 1:4; 10:13.

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