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reasonably identified with Israel's and God's historical enemies, the Egyptians, Canaanites and others.289 These past enemies of Israel are paradigmatic for the Jews' con- temporary enemies in the (Egyptian) diaspora.

The preceding understandings of wicked enmity as moral, religious and ethnic hostility are quite expected in Israelite literature. More significant is the final per- ception in Wisdom: the ungodly are various kinds of fools;290 because "wisdom will not enter a deceitful soul nor dwell in a body enslaved to sin" (1:4). The identity between the righteous and the wise, however, is only once confirmed by explicit coordination of the righteous, the target of the ungodly, with the wise man.

The righteous man (dikaioj) who has died will

condemn the ungodly who are living, and youth that is quickly perfected will condemn

the prolonged old age of the unrighteous man. For they will see the end of the wise man (sofoou), and will not understand what the Lord

purposed for him, and for what he kept him safe.

Wisdom of Solomon 4:16-17

Evidently, the identification of foolish with ungodly was much clearer than that between the righteous and the wise.

289 Cf. exqrou in 5:17; 10:19; 11:5; 16:22; eqnouj qlibontwn in 10:15; basileusin foberoi in 10:16 and upenantiouj in 11:8.

290 Afronaj in 1:3; 3:2; 5:4; asuneton in 1:5; parafronaj in 5:20; sofian . . . kai paideian o ecouqenwn in 3:11; sofian . . . paradeusantej in 10:7 and apaideutoi yuxai in 17:1; cf. also afronsunhj in 10:8.

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