most modern scholars reject these titles as far as any historical value is concerned, but the settings in various situations of David's life played a major role in attempts to identify the enemies for most of the church's history.14 Even after the rise of critical studies of the Old Testament and its wholesale rejection of Davidic authorship in favor of late dating of the psalms, historical questions remained decisive for the identity of the enemies. The goal was to reconstruct the historical occasion in the life of a psalmist which evoked each psalm. One component of this effort were attempts to identify the enemies. They were commonly identified as impious Jews who harassed their pious neighbors, the psalmists, frequently in the Maccabean era.15
Psalm 52; the Ziphites in Psalm 54; the Philistines in Psalm 56; Saul in Psalm 57; and Saul and the men he sent to watch David's house in Psalm 59.
14 Cf. St. Augustine on the Psalms, Vol. I-II, trans. and annotated by Hebgin and Corrigan Westminster, Maryland: The Newman Press, 1960, 1961); St. Basil, "Homily on Psalm 7," in St. Basil: Exegetic Homilies, trans. by A. Way (Washington, D. C.: The Catholic University of America Press, 1963), pp. 175-180; The Commentary of Rabbi David Kimhi on Psalms CXX-CL, ed. and trans. by J. Baker and E. Nicholson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973); J. Calvin, Commentary on the Book of Psalms, 5 vols., trans. by J. Anderson (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1949); M. Luther, "Psalm 101," trans. by A. von Rohr Sauer in Luther's Works Vol. 13, ed. by J. Pelikan (St. Louis: Concordia PubIrgang House, 1956), 143-224.
15 Cf. J. Olshausen, Die Psalmen (Leipzig: S. Hirzel, 1853); C. Toy, "On Maccabean Psalms," Unitarian Review and Religious Magazine XXVI, No. 1 (July, 1886), 1-21; B. Duhm,