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adjust and cope with the ambiguities of the day. The primary threat to Sirach was neither Egypt nor Syria but "nominal" (or apostate) Jews, who Sirach thought would bring about the demise of Judaism and Jewishness through thoroughgoing Hellenization. He found himself in the uncomfortable position of having to view some among his own people as enemies.

Living much later in Alexandria the writer of the Wisdom of Solomon consistently identifies his enemies as the Egyptians. No doubt there were divisions within the Jewish community itself, but the far more obvious cleavage was between Jew and (idol-worshipping) Gentiles. This is why the single appearance of allotrioj within a hostile con-

text in Wisdom portrays him as the victim of enmity rather than its perpetrator. The writer was himself one of the allotrioi in Alexandria. In all previous wisdom literature

the sage was the native and the "stranger" might be the enemy. Only in Wisdom does the opposite perspective appear in which the sage is the intruder and the enemy is the native.

The almost complete silence concerning enemies on Qoheleth's part is much more difficult to explain. His

occasional notices of enemy figures (fwr and qwvf)

are precisely that: notices. Such figures pose no par- ticular threat to Qoheleth's own life. All other wisdom

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