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side and may be virtually equated with one another. A friend or family member may be an enemy (byvx = exqroj)

and wicked (fwr=asebhj). The lines between simple

hostility and religio-moral opposition are hazy or irrelevant.

Along with the blurring of enemy categories an emerging equivalence between the wicked and the fool was observed. In Proverbs the wicked are not identified with any sort of fool. Elihu hints at their equivalence by wishing that Job be indicted "like wicked men" because he spoke "without understanding." With Sirach and Wisdom the identity between wicked and fool is completed in explicit statements and by parallelism of wicked and fool.

This identity of wicked and fool in Sirach is a conse- quence of the view that wisdom is to be found pre-eminently in Torah. Whoever disobeyed. Torah had long been wicked. The fool was one who spurned (the sages') instruction. With the doctrine that wisdom, counsel and instruction was in Torah it became self-evident that the fool was wicked and the wicked was a fool.

In Wisdom of Solomon the identity of wicked and fool hinges upon the old, but now greatly expanded, conviction that creation itself provides (divine) instruction in wisdom and righteousness. Hence, the fool was one who ignored the lessons of the world and its history and, therefore, one who

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