one of the five categories of enemy designations suggested and developed by Ruppert2 and used previously in this investigation.3 These designations have about them the ring of something quite traditional.4 In principle, they could be equally at home in the Psalter. Their absence is more likely due to the exigencies of historical preservation and transmission than to their lack of propriety as enemy vocabulary. The appearance of these derivative, but tradi- tional, enemy designations within wisdom literature is a confirmation of the categories previously used.
Secondly, the procedure of using enemy behavior as an indicator of the possible mention of enemies yields desig- nations which do not fall comfortably into any of the categories of traditional enemies. It is among these genuinely new enemies, which would sound out of place in the Psalter, that the wisdom tradition's own peculiar perception of enemies and enmity is most likely to be found.
2 L. Ruppert, Der leidende Gerechte and seine Feinde: Eine Wortfelduntersuchung (Wurzburg: Echter Verlag, 1973), pp. 7-109.
3 It goes without saying, of course, that often the folk who are presented acting like enemies are traditional figures already discussed in Chapter 2. They need no further discussion here.
4 Such terms, for example, as Jdrm in Prov. 11:19; lfylb-Mdx in 6:12 and 16:27; hlvf frvz in 22:8; Nb in 10:5; 17:2; 19:26 and dygn in 28:16.