to understand a psalm. The psalms, it was seen, make sense and "work" for many people and groups in many historical settings because they bring to expression what is typical rather than unique.
In spite of Gunkel's recognition that psalm poetry emerged from and belonged to the cult, however, he remained a man of his age. He believed that the psalms present in the Psalter were in fact private compositions by and for (post-exilic) pious groups of laity and had no living con- nection with the temple itself. They were modeled after psalms which were used in the (Solomonic) temple, but were not themselves written for temple worship. Because of this belief, Gunkel's handling of the enemy problem did not represent any significant departure from pre-form-critical solutions.17
Sigmund Mowinckel,18 a pupil of Gunkel, followed his teacher in seeing psalms as cultic compositions, but he moved one important step. He maintained that the psalms actually found in the Psalter were not free and private compositions modeled after earlier cultic compositions, but were in fact written for and used in the pre-exilic temple services. It was not necessary to reconstruct hypothetical
17 18 Gunkel, Einleitung, pp. 209-211. S. Mowinckel, Psalmenstudien, 6 Vols. (Kristiania: In kommission bei Jacob Dybwad, 191): and The Psalms in Israel's Worship, 2 Vols., trans. by D. Ap-Thomas (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1962).