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models based on post-exilic imitations. The poems of the canonical Psalter were overwhelmingly the actual Psalms in Israel's Worship, not the psalms in the worship of "'con- venticles' of pious laymen.”19

If the vast majority of the Psalms were in fact pre- exilic and not (late) post-exilic compositions, then solutions of the enemy problem along the lines of sectarian controversies in post-exilic Judaism were out of the question. Clearly, Mowinckel had to explain the enemies differently than had his predecessors. Early on in his career he offered

the thesis that the "workers of iniquity" (Nvx-ylfvp)

encountered in the individual laments, which he understood primarily as psalms requesting healing from sickness (Krankheitpsalmen),20 were sorcerers (and allied demons) whose curses had caused the illnesses of the psalmists.21

19 The Psalms in Israel's Worship is the English title of Mowinckel's originally Norwegian work titled Offersang og Sangoffer which is literally translated "Song of sacrifice and Sacrifice of song" or "Offering song and Song offering"; see "Author's Preface to the English Edition" of the work, p. xxiii. The phrase "'conventicles' of pious laymen" above is drawn from the same work, p. 29.

20 Mowinckel, Psalmenstudien, Vol. I, 9-12, 98-103; see especially p. 101 where he states, "in Wirklichkeit durften die allermeisten individuellen Klagepsalmen Krankheitpsalmen sein.—Wenigstensiersich lassen sie sichalle von dieser Annahme heraus erklaren.

21 Mowinckel, Psalmenstudien, Vol. I, 33-58, 76-133; see especially pp. 76-77 where he states, "Bedeutet awan Zauber, so sind die po’ale awan die Zauberer, und diese Auntater sind in den betreffenden Psalmen nur eine andere Bezeichnung der Feinde, uber die der Beter klagt.” Cf. also idem.,

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