is in fundamental agreement with the narrator of the prologue and epilogue.68
Qoheleth The most striking thing about the book of Qoheleth with regard to enemy figures is their relative absence. A few traditional enemies do appear.69 When one inquires con- cerning the subjects of enemy behavior a few more enemy figures do come to light as derivative but traditional figures. The most significant of these derivative but traditional enemies is quite simply the human being, who must, of course, belong to the neutral group of enemy designations.70
Qoheleth observes that it is a man's envy of his
neighbor which is the source of toil (lmf) and skill
Cf. 42:11 and the discussion above, "Yahweh as the
69 70 The fwr, xFvH and qwvf; see Chapter 2 above. It should be recalled here that L. Ruppert includes just such characters in his study of the Psalms, but they were excluded from the primary stage of this investigation precisely because of their ambiguity (cf. Chapter 2, n. 2). Their reappearance with Qoheleth as derivatives confirms their recognition by Ruppert as enemy designations.
Other derivative, but traditional enemies which emerge
from an examination of enemy behaviors are the rpvH, Cvmg in 10:8 belonging to the fwr-group, the jlm in 8:2ff.; 9:14; Fylw in 10:5 and hvbg in 5:7 from the
neutral group and the dbf in 7:21 who fits in the friends and kinfolk category.