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167

(Nvrwk) in work (4:4). This envy is perhaps related to

the fact that although they were made upright, many devices have been sought out by humans (7:29). Indeed, the "heart of the sons of man" is full of evil (9:3); they are fully set to do evil (8:11). "Man lords it over man to his hurt" (8:9b).

The most significant non-traditional enemy figure for Qoheleth is God.71 It is God who has given to humanity an evil business (1:13). This betrays a kind of perverse caprice on God's part for

What is crooked cannot be made straight, and what is lacking cannot be numbered. Qoheleth 1:15

Consideration of God's work later prompts Qoheleth to ask, "Who can make straight what he has made crooked?" (7:13).

Aside from God's making things crooked, he also makes both good and bad days (7:14), and it is from God that one may have power to enjoy the good things which fall to one's lot (2:25).72 This motif is expanded upon in Qoheleth

71

The only other to appear is the lysk in 4:5, 17

(cf. 10:12, 15), but there is no important difference in Qoheleth's treatment of this figure from that observed in Proverbs.

72

MT reads ynmm; read vnmm with Scott, p. 218;

R. Gordis, Koheleth--The Man and His World: A Study of Ecclesiastes (3rd aug. ed. New York: Schocken Books, 1968), pp. 152, 227; W. Zimmerli, Prediger (Gottingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 1962), p. 16.; but, A. Lauha, Kohelet (Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1978), pp. 40, 42; and C. Ginsburg, The Song of Songs and Qoheleth,

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