Israel's leaders or Yahweh such as the six hundred thousand men, Ephraim and the kings of Judah have already been
encountered as traditional enemies in the byvx and
fwr-groups. When enemy behaviors are examined, however,
other figures also appear. Joshua and David both acted as enemies against the historical enemies of Israel.78 There are some within Israel who acted as enemies not against Israel's foes but against Israel herself. Thus, Solomon "brought wrath" upon his children Iso that the sovereignty was divided" (47:20-21a), and Elijah "brought a famine upon [Israel] and made them few in number" (48:2).
Dispositions, Actions and Things as Enemies
This group of derivative and non-traditional enemies comprises realities which are not people, but nevertheless attack people. Some are unambiguously negative dispositions such as gluttony and lust from which the sage requests God's deliverance (23:6), just as earlier supplicants asked deliverance, from enemies who were personal. Others of this group are ambiguous; sometimes helpful, at other times destructive.
78 Joshua "waged the wars of the Lord" (Sir. 46: 1-3); David "wiped out his enemies" (47:4-5, 7). Samuel might be included here, but it is much more likely that is the antecedent of 46:18, "and he wiped out the leaders of the people of Tyre and all the rulers of the Philistines."