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on to enumerate various items which are in creation's arsenal: lightning, hail, water of the sea, rivers and a mighty wind (vv. 21-22a).111 Elsewhere this is set forth as a fundamental principle.

For the creation, serving thee who hast

made it, exerts itself to punish the unrighteous, and in kindness relaxes on behalf of those

who trust in thee. Wisdom of Solomon 16:24

This enmity of creation against the enemies of God (and Israel) is illustrated in reflection upon the exodus experi- ence. Various elements of nature which paralyzed the Egyptians with terror ars mentioned (17:18-19).112 None of the elements named (whistling wind, chirping of birds, rushing water, crash of rocks, leaping animals, roaring beasts, echoes from mountains) is actually mentioned in Exodus, of course, but the plagues recorded in Exodus are largely natural phenomena. It appears that this writer is

111 Hypothetical parts of creation are also named as in 11:17-19, "For thy all-powerful hand, which created the world out of formless matter, did not lack the means to send upon them a multitude of bears, or bold lions, or newly created unknown beasts full of rage, such as breathe out fiery breath, or belch forth a thick pall of smoke, or flash terrible sparks from their eyes; not only could their damage exterminate men, but the mere sight of them could kill by fright"; as well as known animals such as the wasp (sfhkaj) or wild beasts (qhrioij deinoij) mentioned in 12:8-9.

112

Cf. 16:15-23.

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