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190 merely elaborating on an older Israelite notion of creation at the service of God.113

More threatening than the macrocosm which acts as an enemy towards the ungodly (Egyptians), however, is the microcosm of the human psyche. The ungodly are assailed by specters, phantoms and fear. Indeed, they are paralyzed by their souls' surrender.114 The reason these attacks issue from such fearful delusions is that

. . . wickedness is a cowardly thing,

condemned by its own testimony; distressed by conscience, it has always

exaggerated the difficulties. For fear is nothing but surrender of the

helps that come from reason; and the inner expectation of help, being weak, prefers ignorance of what causes the torment.

Wisdom of Solomon 17:11-13

Summary The preceding examination of characters who act like enemies has revealed greater breadth to the phenomenon of enmity than could be discerned by attention to enemy desig- nations alone. Specifically, it has become clear that although the various designations of enemies are unilateral (i.e., "he is the enemy; I am not") enmity itself is, of course, a bilateral affair. There is enmity on both sides of an enemy designation. This is the significance of the

113 See the same idea in Josh, 10:11, 12-14 and already in the very old Song of Deborah, Judg. 5:20-21. Wisd. 17:3, 15; cf. also 18:17. 114

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