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successful) then the lex talionis would still be operative.3 The meshalim, however, advise avoidance of litigation,4 and one avenue to this goal is through non-aggression.

No Anxiety over Enemies

Another response to the enemies which involves some- thing which a person ought not do is non-anxiety. A few times, always in instruction passages, the counsel is given not toworry about various figures who are customarily associated with enemies.

Be not envious (xnq, pi.) of evil men, nor desire (hxt, hith.) to be with them;

for their minds devise violence, and their lips talk of mischief. Proverbs 24:1-2

Fret (hrH, hith.) not yourself because of evildoers, and be not envious (xnq, pi.) of the

wicked; for the evil man has no future; the lamp of the wicked will be put out. Proverbs 24:19-20,

In each of the four admonitions which advise against anxiety the pi’el stem of the verb xnq ("envy, be

jealous") is used. It is paralleled synonymously by the hithpa’el stem of the verbs hxt ("desire") and hrH

("fret oneself"). Once it is paralleled antithetically by

3 Cf. McKane, p. 575, and Gemser, p. 70, commenting on Prov. 2:29. 25:7c-10; cf. 18:17 and I Cor. 6:1-8. Cf. 3:25-26, 31-35; 23:17. 4 5

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