14 A second, consideration which speaks against Birkeland's conclusion is the fact that Israelites lamented and gave thanks for personal events and circumstances as well as national. The Old Testament is perfectly clear at this point. Jeremiah's laments36 contain descriptions of his enemies which could appear just as easily in the Psalter, yet they are demonstrably not gentiles; they are the "men of Anathoth."37 Job's descriptions of his personal enemies do not refer to foreigners but to people within his own com- munity who are his enemies.38 Surely Jeremiah and Job were not the only ones to describe their personal home-grown enemies like kings described their national gentile enemies.
Finally, the observation should be made that Israelites were not as doctrinnaire in their use of the different forms of psalms as modern scholars have been. The anachronism of Hannah uttering a royal song of thanksgiving (I Sam. 2:1-10) did not create any apparent problems of verisimilitude for the writer(s) of I Samuel. Evidently Israelites (even
36 Jer. 11:18-12:6; 15:10-21; 17:14-18; 18:18-23; 20:7-13; 20:14-18. Cf. S. Balentine, "Jeremiah, Prophet of Prayer," Review and Expositor 78 (1981), 331-344; W. Baum- gartner, Die Klagegedichte des Jeremias (Giessen: Alfred Topelmann, 1917); P. Bonnard, Le Psautier selon Jeremie (Paris: Les Editions du Cerf, 1960); J. Berridge, Prophet, People and the Word of God (Zurich: EVZ-Verlag, 1970).
Jer. 11:21, 23. Cf. Job 6:15-27; 16:10, 20; 19:14-19; 30:1-15.