women) were able to use psalms which were form-critically inappropriate.39 If the different forms were mutually exclusive, then Hezekiah should have used a psalm which was more clearly royal in its orientation (Is. 38:10-20). Birkeland's identification of all enemies is reductionistic. They were (and are) open to more than a single referent.
The "Myth and Ritual School"40 also offers an inter- pretation which denies the possibility of reference to personal enemies in the individual psalms. On this view, the "I" is the king who suffers and is resurrected in the
39 Some use of royal psalms by commoners in post-exilic Judah is a necessary assumption; otherwise they could not have been used and would not have been preserved. Although it is historically unlikely that Hannah could have used a royal psalm (before there was any royalty in Israel), the fact that she could be portrayed doing so in a pre-exilic text means that such use of royal psalms by non-royal figures was certainly conceivable during the monarchical period. It should also be remembered that, in principle at least, the royal psalmists could have reworked pre- monarchic individual psalms in order to make them royal. There was, after all, a temple in Israel before there was a king, and a temple without psalms would be an interesting phenomenon. In the case of Hannah's song only the con- clusion ("he will give strength to his king, and exalt the power of his anointed.") requires a royal understanding. All the rest of the psalm is perfectly intelligible as an individual song of thanksgiving.
40 I. Engnell, Studies in Divine Kingship in the Ancient Near East (Uppsala:—Almqvist and Wiksells Bbltr., 1943), p. 170; A. Johnson, "The Role of the King in the Jerusalem Cultus," in The Labyrinth: Further Studies in the Relation between Myth and Ritual in the Ancient World, ed. by S. Hooke (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1935), pp. 71-111. Cf. J. Eaton, Kingship and the Psalms (Naperville, Ill.: Alec R. Allenson, 1970). His extensive royal interpreta- tion, though not the same as the "Myth and Ritual School," would essentially rule out personal enemies in the Psalms; they would rather be enemies of the king.