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Often the meshalim describe this phenomenon without any reference to Yahweh's activity. The impression of an immanent order easily emerges.

He who digs a pit will fall into it, and a stone will come back upon him who starts it rolling. Proverbs 26:27

The eye that mocks a father and scorns to obey a mother will be picked out by ravens of the valley and eaten by the vultures. Proverbs 30:1753

At other times the expressions of this conviction seem to hint that there is more involved in this than meets the eye. Something or someone seems to stand behind this "immanent order." These hints are particularly striking when passive or intransitive verbs are used.

If the righteous is requited (Mlw, pu.)

on earth, how much more the wicked and the sinner! Proverbs 11:31

Religion and Recht des Alten Testaments (Darmstedt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1972), contains Koch's original article with critical response to it. Cf. also

  • F.

    Horst, "Vergeltung im AT," RGG3, B. VI, col. 1343-1346;

  • J.

    Gammie, "The Theology of Retribution in the Book of

Deuteronomy," CBQ 32 (1970), 1-12; G. von Rad, Old Testament Theology, Vol. I, trans. by D. Stalker (New York—Harper and Row, 1962), 264ff., 269ff., 384ff., 412, 427-428, 436, 458; and Wisdom in Israel, pp. 124-137; and W. Towner, "Retribution," 1DB Supp., ed., by K. Crim (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1976), pp. 742-744.

53 Cf. 6:12-15; 10:7, 16, 24-25, 27, 28; 11:7-8, 19, 28; 12:5-7, 12, 19; 13:9, 21, 25; 15:6; 17:13, 20; 18:3; 20:17, 20; 21:12, 28; 24:19-20; 28:14.

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