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supplicant found himself confronted these supply an abundance of comparisons and metaphors. 44

Undoubtedly the enemies in the individual psalms can function this way45 and, presumably, they could have in Israel. Yet, the "comparisons and metaphors" would most likely be effective if there were known examples of such people and actions in the external world. By way of illus- tration, the descriptions of enemies who "dig a pit"46 is probably to be taken metaphorically, but it could be used only because this spoke of a real danger which even the legal tradition recognized.47 Laws are not formulated to regulate metaphorical digging of pits, but real pits.

This brief survey48 of suggested identities of the enemies in the individual psalms may be summarized in three

44 “ . . . Reprasentanten einer unheimlicher Welt des Bosen als Individuen im unserm Sinne. Um die Bosheit and Feindseligkeit, denen sich der Beter gegenubersieht schildern zu konnen, dedarf dieeser einer Menge von Vergleichen und Metaphern.” Keel, p. 91.

45 S. Meyer, "The Psalms and Personal Counseling," Journal of Psychology and Theology 2 (Winter 1974), 26-30.

46 47 48 Psalms 7:16; 9:16; 35:7. Exod. 21:33-34. Helpful summaries of research on the Psalms may found in E. Gerstenberger, "Psalms," in Old Testament Form Criticism, ed. by J. Hayes (San Antonio:—"Trinity University press, 1974), pp. 179-223; R. Clements, A Century of Old Testament Study (London: Lutterworth Press, 1976), pp. 76- P; Keel, pp. 11-35; and B. Feininger, "A Decade of German Psalm-Criticism," Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 20 (1981), 91-103.


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